Before starting with ACI I would like to discuss or wanted to ask a few questions 🙂 . The diagram needs to be added. What are the different tasks we might need to complete to configure this network? How many different devices would we have to connect/access to configure this network? How many commands would […]


What is QoS? QoS is a mechanism that gives us the ability to treat packets differently as they transit a network device, based on the packet contents. Basically means that the network traffic for a voice call/critical application can be given priority over a movie download or large file transfer as it passes through the […]


What is MPLS? MPLS stands for Multi-Protocol Label switching”. Multi-Protocol: Multi-Protocol means can transport different Payloads and Payload can be either Layer 2 (Ethernet/FR/PPP etc) or Layer 3 (IPv4, IPv6). Label Switching: Switches traffic between interfaces based on locally significant label values. How Label switching is different from traditional routing? As we know that in a […]


PIM: Multicast routing protocol has goal to route the multicast traffic from source to interested receiver. The protocol is named protocol-independent because it is not dependent on any particular Unicast routing protocol for topology discovery. Multicast Tree is a topology of links where multicast traffic can flow or we can say that multicast tree is […]


As we know that there are three method or modes to transfer IP packets Unicast : One to One communication (Number of stream= Number of Receiver) Broadcast: One to All ( where all means whether receiver is interested or not). Multicast : One to Many ( Where many means Interested Receiver). What if we want […]

Interview Question

Traceroute: Traceroute is a tool or diagnostic utility which is used to identify the path used by a packet to reach destination. In Cisco network, traceroute uses a mix of UDP and ICMP packets. How Traceroute works? 1. When we execute a traceroute command, Source sends three UDP packets with TTL of 1 towards Destination as […]


Router Components: 1. POST(Power On Self Test) : POST is a program which is hard coded in the ROM and run from ROM. Basically POST is a diagnostic utility which is used to test the router’s hardware components. 2. Bootstrap : bootstrap is program which is hard coded in the ROM. It is  responsible for finding […]


DMVPN is a dynamic method of VPN that allows point to multipoint communication between hub and spoke devices. Main Advantage of DMVPN: Reduce the configuration overhead. On-demand full mesh connectivity with simple hub-and-spoke configuration. Dynamic addressing for spoke routers. Cost effective solution Reduced latency and bandwidth savings. DMVPN relies on two basic technologies Multipoint GRE […]

Page 1 of 612345...Last »